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Before the Principate
Reign of Augustus
The Empire After Augustus

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For those who are history buffs, this "alternate history" of Imperium diverges from reality by changing Augustus's personal life. In our version, Augustus never married Scribonia and thus never fathered Julia. He furthermore failed to meet and marry Livia and thus never adopted her son, and his eventual heir, Tiberius. In our history, Augustus met and married an entirely different woman (or women) and had entirely different children, thus creating an alternate dynasty. The game takes place two to three generations after the time of Augustus; the broad outlines of Roman history are still the same but the names and personalities of the people in power in Rome are entirely different.

To help those who might be unfamiliar with Roman history, events that occurred in both reality and the game world will be listed here in dark red text. Regular black text indicates something that happened only in the fictitious world of Imperium. Please note also that though a Roman's name often changed haphazardly throughout his life. With a few exceptions, in this timeline I'm going to only use their "final" names for the sake of continuity, even though in many cases they hadn't yet received those names at the time of the events described.

Before the Principate

49-45 BC Civil war breaks out between Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey the Great). Battles rage across the empire and Pompey is assassinated in Egypt. After crushing the last supporters of Pompey's faction, Caesar is named dictator (sole consul) of Rome.
44-42 BC A Senatorial conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius kills Caesar at the foot of Pompey's statue. Civil war breaks out between their forces and Caesar's supporters: his grandnephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian), whom Caesar's will named his adopted son and heir, and an ambitious lieutenant Marcus Antonius (Marc Antony). Antony and Octavian form a triumvirate with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and defeat the conspirators in battle.
37-31 BC Octavian's wife Arria bears him three children: Julius (Germanicus), Julia, and Marcus. The boys both have the surnames Caesar Octavianus.
36 BC Octavian removes Lepidus from power.
34-32 BC Antony's increasingly public affair with Queen Cleopatra of Egypt (his wife was Octavia, Octavian's sister) allows Octavian to rally support against him, eventually declaring war on Cleopatra and Antony and forcing them to flee to Egypt, where they commit suicide. Egypt is conquered and becomes a Roman province.

Reign of Augustus

27-2 BC With the Roman constitution in shambles, Octavian and the Senate inaugurate the Augustan Settlement. The outer forms of the Republic remain in place, but Octavian is named Imperator Caesar Augustus (which loosely translates as "Commander Caesar the Revered") and Son of a God (his adoptive father Julius Caesar had been deified). Over the decades Augustus is given a series of titles and offices which essentially confirm his status as the nearly absolute ruler of the empire. Simultaneously Augustus builds an imperial administration and civil service capable of governing the empire. After expanding the empire to its "natural borders", the Rhine and the Danube, he reduces the legions by half, greatly reducing the tax burden on the population. Both Italy and the provinces prosper and have peace. With few exceptions, the era of Augustus and his immediate successors is a true Pax Romana
12-7 BC Julius (Germanicus) Octavianus's wife Sabina bears two children: Titus and Aurelia.
6 BC Marcus Octavianus dies childless. His widow Antonia, the daughter of Marcus Antonius and Augustus's sister Octavia, immediately marries Sextus Ennius.
6-1 BC Julia, married to Gnaeus Domitius Castor, bears two children: Castor and Marcus.
5 BC Julius Octavianus earns the name Caesar Germanicus for his military victories in Germania; he passes this name on to his son Titus.
4 BC Antonia and Sextus Ennius have twin daughters: Ennia and Octavia.
5 AD Birth of Valerius Vespasianus.
6-9 AD Revolts in Illyricum. Roman army defeated.
14 AD Augustus dies. His eldest son Caesar Germanicus becomes emperor. Birth of Cassius Aurelius, grandson of Germanicus Ceasar. Birth of Tiberius Domitius Caesar, son of Castor.

The Empire After Augustus

Here's the quick summary of important history regarding the imperial succession: Augustus was succeeded by his eldest son Caesar Germanicus. In 24 Germanicus's two most likely heirs, his son Titus Germanicus and his son-in-law Tiberius Cassius Drusus, both died under suspicious circumstances. A year later, Germanicus adopted his nephew Castor, who inherited the throne in 30. Castor had three sons, Tiberius, Domitius, and Ennius. He clearly preferred his older son, whom he groomed for the throne, but Tiberius disappeared while defending the frontier in Mauretania. Soon afterward Castor's health declined rapidly and he grew increasingly paranoid, instituting unpopular purges. Meanwhile, Domitius was defying his father's orders by cutting a swath through northern Europe and sending home piles of loot and slaves. When Domitius finally returned in 48, his father proclaimed him his heir on his deathbed and Domitius assumed the principate. Domitius's only son died as a child, so he married his daughter Domitria to his adopted son, Germanicus Domitius, the son of Titus Germanicus. See also the convoluted imperial family tree (created by Michael Reed).
16 AD Birth of Gaius Domitius Caesar, son of Castor. His mother dies in childbirth. Castor re-marries Ennia, the daughter of Sextus Ennius and Antonia.
18 AD Birth of Lucius Tullius Pulcher.
21 AD Birth of Lucius Domitius Ennius to Castor and his second wife.
24 AD The emperor's son Titus Germanicus is fatally stabbed during a riot at the Circus Maximus. He is survived by daughter Antonia and a newborn son (who will later become Germanicus Domitius). Six months later, the emperor's son-in-law Tiberius Cassius Drusus, dies in Cilicia, possibly from poison. He is survived by son Cassius Aurelius and unborn daughter Aurelia Minor.
25 AD Birth of Aurelia Minor (later Aurelia Severas). Caesar Germanicus adopts his nephew Castor as his heir.
29 AD Birth of Titus Flavius Vespasianus.
30 AD Caesar Germanicus dies, Castor becomes emperor.
36 AD Gaius Domitius marries Merrinia. Later that year they have a son, Tiberius Domitius Minor. Tiberius Domitius (Maior) marries his second cousin Antonia (daughter of Titus Germanicus).
37 AD Birth of Domitia Minor to Gaius Domitius and Merrinia. Marcus Domitius, Emperor Castor's sickly brother, dies of pneumonia. He is survived by two daughters (from two marriages): Arria and Domitia.
40 AD Tiberius Domitius disappears disappears while commanding troops in Mauretania Tingitana. He is survived by an infant daughter, Julia, and an unborn son, Julius Domitius Postumus. The emperor's health begins to decline and he relies increasingly on tyrannical measures to rule. Tully marries Domitia, daughter of Marcus Domitius.
40-48 AD Defying his father's orders, Gaius Domitius embarks on a major campaign in Germania and Dacia, conquering tribe after tribe until he reaches the Baltic Sea. He sends back mountains of loot and thousands of slaves, most of which is gifted to his supporters, making him very popular.
42 AD Birth of Cassia, daughter of Cassius Aurelius and Arria.
43 AD Birth of Domitria, daughter of Gaius Domitius, in Illyricum. Birth of Marcus Tullius Pulcher, son of Tully.
44 AD Birth of Tulla Maior, daughter of Tully.
48 AD Birth of Germanica, daughter of Cassius Aurelius and Arria.
48 AD Gaius Domitius Caesar returns in triumph to Rome. The emperor names him his heir and promptly dies. Gaius Domitius becomes emperor.
49 AD Emperor Domitius begins vastly expanding the legions. Measles epidemic in Rome kills off many children, including the new emperor's two eldest.
44 AD Birth of Tulla Maior, daughter of Tully.
53 AD Marriage of Septimius Severas and Aurelia.
55 AD Titus Flavius supresses rebellion in Palestine. Germanicus Domitius adopted by the emperor, named heir, and married to Domitria. Domitius embarks on a series of conquests in Britannia and Hibernia.
57 AD Domitius returns to Rome from Britannia, Titus Flavius placed in command in Britannia.
58-59 AD Domitius campaigns in Germania, Sarmatia, and Armenia, consolidating recent conquests and adding yet more territory.
60 AD Julius Domitius Postumus, son of Tiberius Domitius, marries Germanica, daughter of Cassius Aurelius.
60-61 AD High taxes lead to scattered revolts in much of Greece and Asia Minor. They are ruthlessly suppressed by the legions. Simultaneous rioting in Syracuse and other cities in Sicilia forces the emperor to marginally lower taxes in those regions. When affairs in the East quiet, four legions are transferred to Sicilia, where taxes are temporarily increased to double their previous levels.
61 AD Tully conquers Kush.
62 AD Revolts in Lusitania.
63 AD Marcus Tullius Pulcher marries Julia, daughter of Tiberius Domitius. Titus Flavius completes conquest of Britannia. Germanicus Domitius dies fighting rebellious tribes in Germania. Emperor Domitius puts down rebellion in Sicilia. THE PRESENT

Page updated 7/21/99, Scott Martin