The Gods II
Chapter 5: Era Centrum - the Great Game
by Scott Martin
Last updated 10/6/97
The longest of the four eras, Era Centrum is divided into a number of game sessions. It is in this age that the mortal races multiply and spread over the Earth, building empires and fighting wars. At the beginning of this era the elemental gods, beginning with a large mana surplus, are dominant. During this period, the mortals must fight to survive against the destructive powers of the elements. However, it is the history powers of the spheres of man which predominate in this era, and as the mortal races thrive and provide more mana from worship the gods of man will eventually come to the fore.
The primary elements of activity on the Earth's surface are the races. Each mortal race, created in Era Aleph, is represented by population units on the Earth map. In addition to the unit markers, each race has a collection of characteristics which represent the race's abilities. These characteristics must be kept track of on sheets, cards, programs, special markers, or other adjuncts to the Earth map.
Population: The total population of a race is actually two numbers. First, it is the total number of population units which the race has on the Earth. This number is used to calculate population growth. Second, it is the total number of population units which the race has on the Earth plus the extra population value provided by cities. Cities are worth three population units, while great cities are worth six. (Cities are described in more detail below.) This second number is used to calculate the race's strength in war and its worship value for providing mana.
Attributes: Racial attributes are those characteristics set by the creation powers which were used during Era Aleph. Each attribute may have a variety of effects, but none of them can be changed once Era Aleph is over, so this is the one invariant racial characteristic.
Knowledges: Knowledges are racial skills and abilities taught by the gods through the use of history powers. Knowledges are additive; each new knowledge adds to the others, providing new abilities and/or altering one or more of the other racial characteristics. It is also possible for a race to lose knowledges, in which case the race also loses the abilities and/or characteristic modifiers associated with that knowledge.
Most knowledges have prerequisites, and thus represent the slow climb of a race from primitive hunter-gatherers to powerful, advanced civilizations. Gamemasters can help the players by providing a "knowledge tree", graphically showing all of the knowledges available in the game and how they interconnect.
Racial Modifications: Like knowledges, racial modifications are abilities granted by the gods through the use of history powers. However, while knowledges are permanent (unless taken away), racial modifications are generally temporary in nature. See below under racial modification powers.
Resistances: Resistances define a race's natural defense against the elements. Resistances are determined by a race's attributes, knowledges, racial modifications, and cultural level. They reduce the damage which a race gets from disasters and global powers. This characteristic also includes vulnerabilities, which are simply resistances in reverse.
Resistances are divided into six elemental categories which correspond to the categories of disaster powers; see Disaster Powers below. (There's also a seventh category for resistances which applies to all disaster and global powers. This is abbreviated X.) After that, each resistance can provide one of two different types of protections. It can either reduce population deaths by a flat amount (including the possibility of infinity) or divide them by a certain fraction. Either type of resistance also provides resistance to reductions in population levels. The exact effects of these are defined further under Disaster Powers. Vulnerabilities have the same parameters, they just serve to increase the effects. All resistances and vulnerabilities are cumulative.
For the sake of brevity, resistances can be encoded using the following scheme. First, specify the elemental category or its abbreviation. Then express the change to be made to the base death rate with an arithmetic modifier. Some examples:
F-2 means the race reduces deaths from fire disasters by 2 units.
Aggression: Aggression represents a race's propensity for starting wars. Aggression is expressed as an integer, which may be positive or negative, and is determined by the race's attributes, knowledges, cultural level, and racial modifications. At the beginning of each century, the referees use this number as a modifier to a die roll to determine whether the race declares war on one, some, or all of its neighbors.
Military: Military represents a race's ability to successfully fight wars. Military is expressed as an integer, which may be positive or negative, and is determined by the race's attributes, knowledges, cultural level, racial modifications, wealth, and terrain features occupied. This number is used as a modifier to the die rolls when determining the results of a war.
Diplomacy: Diplomacy represents a race's ability to successfully stop wars before they happen. Diplomacy is expressed as an integer, which may be positive or negative, and is determined by the race's attributes, knowledges, racial modifications, and wealth. This number is used as a modifier to die rolls when the race is attempting to stop an impending war.
Wealth: Wealth represents a race's material possessions. Wealth is expressed as an integer, which is always positive (if modified by circumstances to a negative number it is treated as zero), and is determined by the race's attributes and knowledges and by the squares on the Earth map which the race occupies. Certain terrain features automatically provide wealth to race which occupies their square, while some features or base terrains provide wealth if certain knowledges are known. Wealth is used as a factor in the prerequisites for certain powers. It also serves to modify the race's Military and Diplomacy; for each full 3 points of Wealth the race gains +1 Military and +1 Diplomacy.
Movement Range and Sea-faring Range: Movement Range indicates how far a race can move on land or ice during a century. Sea-faring Range indicates how far a race can move on water during a century. Movement Range and Sea-faring Range can be combined together when moving across both land/ice and water. All races begin with a Movement Range of 1 and a Sea-faring Range of 0.
While Movement and Sea-faring Ranges can be applied to individual population units (such as when determining the movement of pestilences), movement limits are more generally applied to the entire race. A population unit can be moved to any square which any unit in the race could have reached. In effect, internal movement within the race's borders is unlimited. All squares which can be reached in this manner are considered to "border" the race. Bordering is thus used as a limit to the race's expansion during population growth. A foreign race is considered to be in contact with the race if any of the foreign population units live within the bordering squares.
Era Centrum is divided into 16 centuries, each representing a cycle of activity on the Earth. The exact length of a century in terms of time in Heaven is up to the gamemasters, but should be divided as equally as possible among the game sessions.
There are three racial cultural levels: primitive, barbarian, and civilized. The cultural level determines the race's population limits and its behavior when the population grows, fights wars, and responds to disasters. (See population limits, population growth, war, and disaster powers below.)Primitive races are migratory hunter-gatherers. As such they always spread to their maximum extent wherever possible during population growth. When migrating, the entire population of the primitive race moves. After fighting a war, primitive races will not move in to occupy squares vacated by their opponents. Because of their dispersed nature, primitive races always subtract one from the number of population units lost in any specific disaster. (In the coded system used below, primitive races have resistance X-1.)
Barbarian races are more settled, but still semi-migratory. New population units are divided into two parts: half spread into unoccupied bordering squares, the other half are placed on currently occupied squares (up to their population limits; if all currently occupied squares reach their limit, then the excess population will also spread outward). When migrating, the race will move all but one population unit per square, ie. they will leave behind one unit in each square they previously occupied. Being naturally warlike, barbarian races receive +1 Military and +2 Aggression. After a war, they will move two population units (or one, if two would exceed the population limit) into any squares vacated by their opponents.
Civilized races are settled and only move in response to over-population. New population units are always placed in currently occupied squares as long as there is room for them. When migrating, only new population units will move in the direction of migration; older units will simply stay in place. After a war, they will move two population units (or one, if two would exceed the population limit) into any squares vacated by their opponents.
While races have many characteristics (see sidebar), the pantheon deserves a separate section, since this is the aspect of the race which relates most directly to the gods.
The pantheon of a race represents those deities which the population worships. Any number of gods can be in the pantheon, each receiving a percentage of the total worship. A race's pantheon numbers must add up to 100% at all times. When mana is distributed at the end of the century, each deity receives the worship of a percentage of the race's population equal to her percentage of the pantheon.
In addition to gods, pantheons can have two special members: diabolism and atheism. These are used to represent fractions of a population which have been seduced into worshiping demons or have decided not to worship anyone at all. Diabolists are a mana source for the demons just like regular worshipers are a mana source for the gods. However, the demons have to share the mana among themselves. Atheists provide no mana to anybody.
The members of a race's pantheon can change its composition at any time, beginning from the end of Era Aleph. They may remove members, add new members, or rearrange the percentages among themselves. The only restriction is that all members of the pantheon must agree unanimously on any change.
When diabolism or atheism are "members" of a pantheon, special rules apply to any changes since there are no players to represent these groups. (Even if there are players representing the demons, the mortals worship diabolism as a whole, not individual demons. Thus the demon characters are not considered pantheon members and may not influence it as can member deities.) Diabolism will "agree" to any change in the pantheon as long as it receives at least 5% more of the worship than it currently has. Atheism works the same way. If this condition is not met, then diabolism or atheism will "veto" the pantheon change, rendering it null.
Some history powers allow the gods to change a pantheon without the consent of the other members. This is done through the use of cult powers. (See below under racial modification powers.) Cults also occur spontaneously as a result of certain racial characteristics. When this occurs, the deity listed increases his percentage of the total worship by the listed amount. All other pantheon members reduce their pantheon percentage by a proportionate amount. Cults do not cause religious turmoil.
In order to change a pantheon, it is best to provide a written "pantheon change order" signed by all members. During transition phases, give this to the gamemasters. During game sessions, give it to the Earth map referees. Note that changing a pantheon is not the same as using a history power on the Earth. As long as all the signatures are in order, only one of the members need actually be present at the Window on the World and you don't have to wait in line or take a number.
Religious turmoil is the state a race is in when internal factions are fighting over religious matters and its pantheon is in flux. If a race is in religious turmoil at any time during a century, then it provides no worship mana at the end of the century to anyone.
Religious turmoil can be instigated by a number of history powers. It can also be started at will by any member of the pantheon.
At the end of any century in which a race is in religious turmoil, the Earth map referees will roll a die and apply results as follows:
1-2 nothing happens
If the last option occurs, the referees will inform the god character wherever he may be (even if he's dead) and get his decision on the matter. If the random god chosen in this case is diabolism or atheism, then diabolism or atheism will choose one of the other pantheon members at random.
Religious turmoil ends when one of two conditions occur. First, it will end whenever the pantheon is reduced to only one member. At that point, the turmoil ends and the pantheon is stabilized with that member having all 100%. Second, turmoil will end whenever all members agree to a new division of the pantheon (even if it stays exactly the same). Use the same procedure as for changing a pantheon, including the automatic behavior of diabolism and/or atheism if one or both is a member.
To start religious turmoil in a race which worships you, simply approach the Earth map and inform the Earth map referees of your intention. You don't have to take a number or wait in line, though you do have to be in the Window on the World. Religious turmoil begins immediately.
Each square can only support a certain number of population units. This number is known as the population limit. Population limits are determined by the base terrain of the square and the cultural level of the race, as listed in the table below. They can be further modified by certain terrain features (fertile land, game animals, etc.) or by knowledges possessed by the race (such as Fishing).
Plains Forest Desert Mount. Ice Water Primitive 1 1 1 1 1 0 Barbarian 3 3 2 1 1 0 Civilized 5 3 3 2 0 0
If after population growth a race has more units in any square than the population limit, then the excess units are killed, dying of starvation. If this happens, the race gains +2 Aggression until the end of that century. If population limits are somehow reduced in the middle of the century a race will spread out again, but only population units which would otherwise starve will move.
Cities are a unique terrain feature that can only exist in squares inhabited by civilized races. Each city counts as three population units for purposes of war strength and providing worship mana. These extra three units are not used to calculate population growth. Each city also provides the race with +1 Wealth.
A race builds one city automatically when it first learns Civilization and later builds new cities every time the power Found City is used on it. A new city may only be built if the race inhabits at least 6 squares for each previously existing city. (Note that a race's first city is not, by definition, under this restriction.) If the race does not meet this requirement, then no new cities may be built. New cities are always built in the square where the race has the highest population (and where no city currently exists). If two or more squares have equally high population, then the referee will select the one closest to the "center" of the race's territory.
If all of the population in a square is killed off, then any city in that square is also destroyed.
In addition to regular cities there are great cities. Except as noted in the description of Found Great City, a great city works just like a city. Great cities also increase the mana costs of many disaster powers which affect them.
If a race ever loses all of its cities, then it loses the knowledge of Civilization. This is the only way in which Civilization can be lost; no history power can take away this knowledge as long as the race owns a single city. If Civilization is lost, then the race reverts to barbarism and loses all knowledges which had Civilization as a prerequisite. This can obviously be devastating for an advanced race which has many knowledges. Gods who wish such races to prosper must take special care that their cities are not destroyed.
Unless a character or referee volunteers to record events happening at the Earth map, it is incumbent upon each god who affects the Earth to make a record of his actions. The gamemasters should supply a pad of paper or notebook in which the history of the world can be recorded as it happens. Each god is required to write down what happened and where. The gods are not required to write down their name to indicate responsibility, though they may if they want. Earth map referees should do the same for any events which occur without divine intervention.
As an adjunct to keeping the history, people should always name things on the map. When a city is founded, it should have a name. If a volcano appears, it should have a name. Discrete territories colonized or conquered can be named. Major wars should be named. If possible, the referees and players should put names of geographical entities directly on the map for future reference.
History powers are those which the gods use to influence mortals and the Earth after creation. History powers may only be used in Eras Centrum and Omega. All history powers are used at the Earth map. (See The Gods and the Earth in Chapter Four.)
Gods may work together to combine their sphere cards in order to use higher level history powers. Thus, three gods each with one card in the sphere of War may combine their cards to cast a third level War history power. Note that this ability to combine cards does not apply to personal powers. To combine sphere powers, all gods participating must be present at the required place at the same time. The mana cost for the power may be split among the individual gods in any way they wish.
The ability to combine in this fashion may be used even when it is not necessary. If two gods each have three cards in the War sphere, they may still combine their cards to cast a third level history power, thus allowing them to shared the mana cost. Celestial spirits who have borrowed sphere powers may not combine them with others in this fashion.
A variety of effects can modify the cost of a personal power; no combination of such effects can lower the cost below 25% of the normal mana cost. All fractional costs are rounded up.
Disaster powers call upon the elements to inflict damage upon the peoples of Earth. Disaster powers are targeted on squares, races, or cities. However, the effects of a disaster power may be modified by characteristics or abilities of the race(s) affected. (Why the letter B? Well, D for disasters was already used, as were N for natural disaster and C for calamity. So think of it as B for boom.)
Any disaster power can fall into one or more of the following elemental sub-categories. These categories are used solely to determine the applicability of resistances and vulnerabilities in affected races. Powers which do not have a sub-category are only affected by resistances which work on all powers.
Powers marked (Bf) are fire disasters.
When applying resistances to the effects of a disaster power, use any and all resistances which apply to the power. (If a specific disaster is both earth and fire-related, then an earth resistance will apply in full.) To calculate actual deaths, first apply any percentage changes (multipliers or dividers), then any flat changes (additions or subtractions). All resistance or vulnerability calculations are applied to the losses which the race took as a whole, even though the initial death tolls may have been determined by taking losses per square or by saying "all". Round fractions up. Unless otherwise specified, both percentage and flat changes to population deaths are also applied to any city losses specifically mentioned in the disaster effects.
Note that some disasters temporarily alter the population levels in certain squares. A race with any finite level of immunity for that type of disaster will also reduce the loss of population levels by one. If the race has an infinite resistance (disaster-[infinity]) then it completely ignores population level reductions from that type of disaster. Example: The Norsemen have I/2 (cut losses from ice disasters in half). The hypothetical ice disaster Arctic Blast normally causes a race to reduce their population levels in plains by two. If the Norsemen were struck by Arctic Blast, their population levels would only drop by one. Their neighbors the Frost Giants have I-[infinity] (cut losses from ice disasters down to 0). The Frost Giants would be completely unaffected by Arctic Blast.
Knowledge powers provide learning and insight to mortal races, allowing them to develop skills which will enhance (or sometimes diminish) their ability to survive and prosper. The effects of a knowledge power are permanent unless the knowledge is taken away by some other means. Most knowledges have prerequisites. The gamemasters should draw up a "knowledge tree" showing the prerequisite connections between all knowledges available in the game.
Knowledge powers are divided into sub-categories based on the type of knowledge being taught. These sub-categories exist solely to define the knowledges for purposes of modification by other powers. Note that some knowledges do not fall into any special sub-category.
Powers marked (Kc) teach civics knowledges.
Global powers are those which affect the entire Earth and are thus usually high level. Their effects vary widely.
Global powers which are elemental in nature and cause damage can be defined by the same six sub-categories used in disaster powers (see above). Resistances and vulnerabilities can thus apply to some global powers just as they do to disaster powers. Resistances which affect all elemental disasters only affect global powers which fall into one of the six elemental categories. Global powers which do not have an elemental distinction are completely unaffected by resistances of any kind.
Racial modification powers cause temporary changes to the characteristics of a race. They are best represented by small markers or signs which can be easily placed and removed on the Earth map or its associated parts. The effects of a racial modification last as long as the description states and then go away. These parameters are modified by the following sub-categories. Note that any one power may actually fall into a number of these sub-categories.
Powers marked (Mc) are century time-delay powers. They have no effect until the beginning of the next century.
Powers marked (Mv) are trigger time-delay powers. They have no effect until a specific trigger event occurs. A race cannot have the same power cast on it again until the first casting is triggered and used up. The exception to this rule are powers marked (Mv+); these powers can be cast multiple times on a specific race, allowing the race to "save up" for the future. Each time the trigger event occurs, only one casting of the racial modification power will be triggered and used up; the others will hang around until the trigger event occurs a second or later time.
Powers marked (Mi) are individual-inspired racial modification powers, ie. those caused by a single individual or small group of people within the race. This has no effect on the power itself, but exists for definitional purposes, as these powers can be modified by certain other powers.
Powers marked (Mp) are "permanent" racial modification powers. The term permanent is in quotes because they are actually only permanent until a certain trigger event occurs, at which time the effects cease. A race may only have one of each permanent modification on it at a time (ie, a race cannot have two Commercial Advancements).
Powers marked (Mu) are cult powers which alter the target race's pantheon without causing religious turmoil. The deity listed increases its percentage of the total worship by the listed amount. All other pantheon members reduce their pantheon percentage by a proportionate amount.
Powers marked (Mn) are negative racial modification powers. This has no effect on the power itself, but exists for definitional purposes, as these powers can be modified by certain other powers.
Base terrain powers alter the base terrain of one or more squares on Earth. The caster may specify exactly which squares will be changed as long as they meet the criteria for a target. There are also creation powers which are base terrain powers. Note that base terrain powers will not work on squares which contains resistant terrain features.
Terrain feature powers add terrain features to one or more squares on Earth without changing the base terrain. The caster may specify exactly which squares will be changed as long as they meet the criteria for a target. There are also creation powers which are terrain feature powers.
Terrain feature powers are divided into a number of sub-categories which define how the feature will respond to changes in the base terrain underneath it. These are listed fully in the rules for creation powers in Era Aleph. However, there is one type which exists only as a history power.
Powers marked (Fc) create or modify city terrain features. They are destroyed if the base terrain ever changes to water or ice (though it is possible for some races to actually build cities which start in water or ice). City terrain features are also subject to destruction by many other history powers or the effects of war.
This category includes all powers which don't fall into one of the above categories. Any special rules or restrictions that apply to the power are included in the description.
The referees should call an end to the Activity Phase five to ten minutes before the end of the century (based on the minimum amount of time they think it will take to complete calculations). Until they are complete and the new century starts, no divine intervention can occur.
The referees should complete the Calculation Phase as quickly as possible to minimize "down time" on the Earth map. A number of game aids (created in advance by the gamemasters) will help tremendously in handling the many calculations. Some examples:
The Death Worksheet is a piece of paper divided into boxes, one for each source of mana provided by mortal deaths. As population units die during the Activity Phase place them into the appropriate box; at the end of each century, the counters in each box can be counted and totaled up.
The Century-End Worksheet lists all of the various century-end mana sources (including a line for the population of each race on Earth) with columns to record the numbers. At the end of each century, count the various sources and record them on the worksheet. Remember, if a race was in religious turmoil at any time during the century its effective population for worship is 0.
The Mana Calculating Program contains three sets of variables:  Current multipliers for each mana source for each god, determined by their sphere cards. (These numbers are only updated during transition phases.)  Current pantheon percentages for each race. (These numbers must be updatable during the course of the game session as pantheons change composition.)  Source totals counted up at the end of each century. (These numbers are input fresh each century from the death and century-end worksheets.) The program takes all of these numbers, performs the appropriate calculations, and spits out the mana which each god will receive.
Because century-end sources often involve fractional amounts, mana amounts less than 1 should be recorded at the mana distribution points and added up over time until they reach whole numbers.
Replace the next century with a second period of Creation. During that time use all rules for Era Aleph, but Heaven and Demesne creation powers may not be used.
The division of time into centuries only applies to activities and mana sources on the Earth. Actions in Heaven continue throughout the game session without pause.
Each century is divided into two parts. During the Activity Phase, the Earth map referees alter the terrain and races on Earth as they would change without divine intervention, including population growth. Simultaneously, the denizens of Heaven use their powers to change the Earth. During the Calculation Phase, the referees count up mana sources and distribute mana; characters are unable to affect the Earth during this period.
The Activity Phase of each century includes a lot of action; it is likely that many things will be going on simultaneously. The exact order in which various actions are handled is up to the referees, who should attempt to handle events in a "realistic" manner. The only priority is that each race's population growth at the beginning of the century must occur before any other event which may impact that race. This prevents gods from wiping out populations before they have a chance to multiply and spread.
As a general rule of thumb, one referee should deal primarily with the characters and their interventions in the Earth and a second referee should deal primarily with the non-divine events, those which occur automatically and are not directly instigated by the characters. Any further Earth map referees can switch between the two jobs as needed. However, any referee should be able to perform any functions when their primary job is not required so as to prevent backlogs and lines at the map.
Most non-divine events occur at the beginning of the century and can be divided into a few categories:
At the beginning of the century, each race increases its population by 25% of its current population total (not including the "bonus" population provided by cities). This number is often modified by racial attributes or modifications. Fractions are rounded up. New population units are distributed according to the behavior patterns set by the race's cultural level. This distribution is changed if the race has been given the order to migrate. Furthermore, in a migrating race all or some of the previously existing population units may move into new squares, once again dependent on the cultural level.
Whether placing new population units or moving old ones, all population units can only go into squares which border the race, ie within the Movement Range and/or Sea-faring Range of the race.
At the beginning of each century, every race has a chance of declaring war on one or more of its neighbors, even without the prompting of the gods. For each race, roll a d6, add the race's Aggression, and consult the following table:
4 or less no war declared 5-6 race declares one war 7-8 race declares two wars 9 or more race declares three wars
The target of each race is chosen at random from among the races bordering the aggressor. Note that it is possible for a race to attack another race multiple times in the same century.
While aggressive attacks should be rolled and determined early in the century, the wars engendered by Aggression do not need to be fought immediately. All declarations of war from aggressive attacks should be posted so that the characters can see them (gods are usually good at predicting wars). The actual wars are conducted (in random order) later in the century as time allows. In general, wars instigated directly by the gods should take priority over wars which races start on their own.
This category covers a variety of events which can occur at the beginning of each century, usually dependent on special types of terrain, racial attributes, knowledges, or modifications already out in the world which have continuing effects. Some examples: spreading deserts and glaciers, conversions caused by Proselytism, cutting down forests by races with Engineering, and cults caused by Void Gates or knowledge of Explosives. A few of these special events, such as sacrifices from races with Sacrificial Rites, occur at the end of the century also.
Divine intervention includes any history powers used by the characters on the Earth. The effects of each power take place immediately as the powers are used, the order determined by a queuing system as described under Gods and the Earth Map in Chapter Four. More detail is given on the rules for history powers above.
The exception to immediate effects is war. Though declarations of war occur immediately, the actual conduct of the war should be delayed by about five minutes at the referees' discretion (unless it is declared near the end of the century) to allow other characters to react.
(Though demons and some celestial spirits have limited powers to affect the Earth, it is mostly the gods who meddle in Earthly affairs, thus the term "divine intervention".)
After a war is declared but before it actually takes place, either or both sides have the chance to use Diplomacy to stop the war. Each race's choice whether or not to use Diplomacy is decided by the referees unless dictated by racial attributes, knowledges, or modifications. In general, a race will attempt to use Diplomacy whenever the race would probably lose more than 15% of its population in the potential war. It is possible that both races will try to use Diplomacy to avert war, though wars can still occur even if both sides are trying to stop it.
When a race uses Diplomacy, roll a d6, add the race's Diplomacy, subtract the enemy race's Aggression, and consult the following table:
5 or less the war occurs 6 or more war is averted
If a war is declared and not stopped by diplomacy, then the war occurs. The side which declared war is considered the attacker. Note that some modifiers to Military apply only to the attacker or the defender.
When a war is conducted, calculate each race's relative military: Military minus opponent's Military. (This will be a negative number for the weaker side.) Add this number to 10 to get the casualty percentage. Apply that number as a percentage to the race's population (including bonus population for cities) and round up. This is the number of enemy units which will be killed. Example: The race of Ultra-Dwarves has Population 43 and Military +8. They are attacking the numerous yet weak Low Elves, who have Population 65 and Military +2. The Ultra-Dwarves have a relative military of +6 and will kill 7 elves (16% of 43); the Low Elves have a relative military of -6 and will kill 3 dwarves (4% of 65). Losses are generally taken from squares adjacent to the enemy, usually spread out along the border; the referees should use common sense to choose the specific units lost.
If either side's losses are equal to or greater than 150% of their opponent's losses, then that side is defined as the loser of the war (and the other side, of course, the winner). In addition to population losses, the loser must also vacate territory which may be filled in by the winners. The loser must vacate one square for every 2 units difference in losses (rounded down). Example: In the above example, the Ultra-Dwarves win the war and the Low Elves must vacate two squares. Any losing units left in the squares after population losses are removed must retreat into any bordering squares not already occupied by other races. If this causes one of those squares to exceed the population limit, then the excess units will immediately die of starvation. Winning units will move in to fill the vacated squares using the behavior patterns set by their Cultural Level.
If there is a city in a square lost in war, then that city is automatically destroyed if the Cultural Level of the winning enemy is primitive or barbarian. If the winner is civilized, then the referees will roll a single six-sided die: if the result is equal to or less than the winning race's Aggression then the city is destroyed, otherwise the city survives and is simply taken over by the winners.
Most wars are fought between two races. However, if the referees feel that two or more races are fighting a single opponent for a similar cause, then the wars can be combined. This would occur if, for example, two allied gods had races declare war on a common enemy in quick succession. If this occurs, the race with multiple enemies must split its population between its enemies. The results of each paired war are conducted separately, but the beleaguered race will inflict less damage on its opponents.
Gods should note that if the difference in Military between two races is 10 or greater, then the more militaristic race can simply walk over the other race taking no losses whatsoever. Caring gods should ensure that their worshipers never find themselves in this predicament!